Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data


Beware of the limitations of this tool

Pneumonia in children

Calculated pretest probability: 15 %
Relevant inclusion criteria: Age < 5 



Clinical signs

3SpO2 < 95%
4Chest-wall tenderness
5Intercostal recession
6Breathing frequency > 40 / min
8Nasal flaring
9Wheezing on examination

To further investigations

Sources used:

1.Rambaud-Althaus C et al. Waarde van symptomen en klinische tekens voor de diagnose van pneumonie bij kinderen. Minerva 2015 Volume 14 Nummer 6, 66 - 67
2.Shah SN et al. Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. JAMA. 2017 Aug 1;318(5):462-471
3.Zanco J et al. Analysis of chest x-ray and clinical finding in children with pneumonia. Med. Sci., Vol. 17, No. (2), 2013 477-481
4.Ianniello S et al. First-line diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia in emergency: lung ultrasound (LUS) in addition to chest-X-ray (CXR) and its role in follow-up. The British Journal of Radiology 2016 89:1061
5.Koster MJ et al. Diagnostic properties of C-reactive protein for detecting pneumonia in children. Respiratory Medicine Volume 107, Issue 7, July 2013, 1087-1093
6.Pneumonia among Children in Developing Countries: DBMD