Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data

SEARCH

Cough

Influenza during flu season
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.29 ( Ebell MH et al. )
(average) 1.29
Negative likelihood ratio
0.38 ( Ebell MH et al. )
(average) 0.38
Upper respiratory infection
 Positive likelihood ratio
0.92 ( Nader Shaikh et al. )
(average) 0.92
Negative likelihood ratio
2.40 ( Nader Shaikh et al. )
(average) 2.4
Acute sinusitis
 Positive likelihood ratio
0.96 ( Claude Cyr et al. )
(average) 0.96
Negative likelihood ratio
1.12 ( Claude Cyr et al. )
(average) 1.12
Asthma in children
 Positive likelihood ratio
2.60 ( ITS Yu et al. )
(average) 2.6
Negative likelihood ratio
0.49 ( ITS Yu et al. )
(average) 0.49
COPD
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.80 ( Dewar M et al. )
(average) 1.8
Negative likelihood ratio
0.69 ( Dewar M et al. )
(average) 0.69
Hypothyroidism
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.46 ( Carle A et al. )
(average) 1.46
Negative likelihood ratio
0.91 ( Carle A et al. )
(average) 0.91
Otitis media acuta
 Positive likelihood ratio
0.90 ( R Rothman et al. )
(average) 0.9
Negative likelihood ratio
1.20 ( R Rothman et al. )
(average) 1.2
Pneumonia in children
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.12 ( Rambaud-Althaus C et al. )
1.20 ( Shah SN et al. )
0.99 ( Zanco J et al. )
(average) 1.1
Negative likelihood ratio
0.30 ( Rambaud-Althaus C et al. )
0.47 ( Shah SN et al. )
2.00 ( Zanco J et al. )
(average) 0.92


Sources used:

1.Ebell MH et al. A systematic review of the history and physical examination to diagnose influenza. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb;17(1):1-5.
2.Nader Shaikh et al. Signs and Symptoms that Differentiate Acute Sinusitis from Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct; 32(10): 1061–1065.
3.Claude Cyr et al. Do symptoms and initial clinical probability predict the radiological diagnosis of acute sinusitis in children? Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Oct; 6(8): 536–539.
4.ITS Yu et al. Using child reported respiratory symptoms to diagnose asthma in the community. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:544–548.
5.Dewar M et al. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnostic Considerations. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Feb 15;73(4):669-676
6.Carle A et al. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure: a population-based case–control study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;171(5):593-602
7.R Rothman et al. Does this child have acute otitis media? JAMA. 2003 Sep 24;290(12):1633-40
8.Rambaud-Althaus C et al. Waarde van symptomen en klinische tekens voor de diagnose van pneumonie bij kinderen. Minerva 2015 Volume 14 Nummer 6, 66 - 67
9.Shah SN et al. Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. JAMA. 2017 Aug 1;318(5):462-471
10.Zanco J et al. Analysis of chest x-ray and clinical finding in children with pneumonia. Med. Sci., Vol. 17, No. (2), 2013 477-481