Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data

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Headache

Influenza during flu season
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.26 ( Ebell MH et al. )
(average) 1.26
Negative likelihood ratio
0.59 ( Ebell MH et al. )
(average) 0.59
Upper respiratory infection
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.32 ( Nader Shaikh et al. )
(average) 1.32
Negative likelihood ratio
0.78 ( Nader Shaikh et al. )
(average) 0.78
Mononucleosis
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.30 ( Mark H et al. )
(average) 1.3
Negative likelihood ratio
0.73 ( Mark H et al. )
(average) 0.73
Hypothyroidism
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.32 ( Carle A et al. )
(average) 1.32
Negative likelihood ratio
0.94 ( Carle A et al. )
(average) 0.94
HIV infection
 Positive likelihood ratio
2.10 ( Wood E et al. )
(average) 2.1
Negative likelihood ratio
0.90 ( Wood E et al. )
(average) 0.9
Temporal Arteritis
 Positive likelihood ratio
1.22 ( Ryan D et al. )
0.91 ( Battista NA et al. )
(average) 1.07
Negative likelihood ratio
0.75 ( Ryan D et al. )
1.20 ( Battista NA et al. )
(average) 0.98
Malignant brain tumor - primary
 Positive likelihood ratio
4.83 ( Hamilton W et al. )
(average) 4.83
(average) 0


Sources used:

1.Ebell MH et al. A systematic review of the history and physical examination to diagnose influenza. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb;17(1):1-5.
2.Nader Shaikh et al. Signs and Symptoms that Differentiate Acute Sinusitis from Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct; 32(10): 1061–1065.
3.Mark H et al. Epstein-Barr Virus Infectious Mononucleosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Oct 1;70(7):1279-1287.
4.Carle A et al. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure: a population-based case–control study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;171(5):593-602
5.Wood E et al. Does this adult patient have early HIV infection?: The Rational Clinical Examination systematic review. JAMA. 2014 Jul 16;312(3):278-85
6.Ryan D et al. Management of the Patient with Suspected Temporal Arteritis. Ophthalmology 2005;112:744–756
7.Battista NA et al. Is it giant cell arteritis? A retrospective audit on temporal artery biopsy for giant cell arteritis. Malta Medical School Gazette Volume 01 Issue 02 2017
8.Hamilton W et al. Clinical features of primary brain tumours: a case–control study using electronic primary care records. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Sep 1; 57(542): 695–699