Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data

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Beware of the limitations of this tool

Anterior cruciate ligament tear - chronic

Calculated pretest probability: 1 %
Relevant inclusion criteria: All ages, knee injury 


Clinical signs

1Anterior drawer test
2Pivot shift
3Lachman test





Sources used:

1.Katz JW et al. The diagnostic accuracy of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament comparing the Lachman test, the ante- rior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test in acute and chronic knee injuries. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:88-91
2.Benjaminse A et al. Clinical Diagnosis of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Volume 36 Number 5 May 2006, 267-288
3.Gianotti S et al. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury and other knee ligament injuries: A national population-based study. JSAMS November 2009 Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 622–627