Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data


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Brain and Nervous System

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Sources used:

1.Sheldon R et al. Historical criteria that distinguish syncope from seizures. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3 July 2002, 142-148
2.Rao G et al. Does this patient have Parkinson disease? JAMA. 2003 Jan 15;289(3):347-53
3.Smetana GW et al. The Diagnostic Value of Historical Features in Primary Headache SyndromesA Comprehensive Review. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(18):2729-2737
4.Thomas KE et al. The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig's sign, Brudzinski's sign, and nuchal rigidity in adults with suspected meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 35, Issue 1, 1 July 2002, Pages 46–52
5.Ala A et al. Accuracy of Neck stiffness, Kernig, Brudzinski, and Jolt Accentuation of Headache Signs in Early Detection of Meningitis. Emerg (Tehran). 2018; 6(1): e8
6.Mofidi M et al. Jolt accentuation and its value as a sign in diagnosis of meningitis in patients with fever and headache. Turk J Emerg Med. 2017 Mar; 17(1): 29–31
7.Uluduz D et al. Cranial autonomic features in migraine and migrainous features in cluster headache. Arch Neuropsychiatr 2016; 53
8.Pacheva IH et al. Diagnostic value of combinations of symptoms of migraine and tension-type headache included in the diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents in the international classification of headache disorders 2nd edition. Folia Medica 2013; 55(3&4): 46-55
9.Sung VW et al. Sensitivity and Specificity of Stroke Symptom Questions to Detect Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. Neuroepidemiology. 2011 Apr; 36(2): 100–104
10.Purrucker JC et al. Comparison of stroke recognition and stroke severity scores for stroke detection in a single cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;86(9):1021-8
11.Whiteley WN et al. Clinical scores for the identification of stroke and transient ischaemic attack in the emergency department: a cross-sectional study Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Published Online First: 14 March 2011
12.Berglund A et al. Face Arm Speech Time Test Use in the Prehospital Setting, Better in the Ambulance than in the Emergency Medical Communication Center. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Feb 26;37(3):212-216
13.Nor AM et al. The Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale: development and validation of a stroke recognition instrument. Lancet Neurology. 2005;4(11):727–734
14.London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2008. Stroke: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Initial Management of Acute Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack
15.Kirby M et al. The clock drawing test in primary care: sensitivity in dementia detection and specificity against normal and depressed elderly. Geriatric Psychiatry Volume16, Issue10 October 2001 Pages 935-940
16.Simmons BB et al. Evaluation of Suspected Dementia. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Oct 15;84(8):895-902
17.Mitchell AJ et al. A meta-analysis of the accuracy of the mini-mental state examination in the detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Jan;43(4):411-31
18.Eefsting JA et al. Bruikbaarheid van de 'Mini-mental state examination' voor het vaststellen van dementie; onderzoek naar de criteriumvaliditeit in een Nederlandse plattelandspopulatie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1997;141:2066-70
19.Hamilton W et al. Clinical features of primary brain tumours: a case–control study using electronic primary care records. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Sep 1; 57(542): 695–699
20.Chowdhury AH et al. Sensitivity and Specificity of Electroencephalography (EEG) Among Patients Referred to an Electrophysiology Lab in Bangladesh. J Dhaka Med Coll. 2014; 23(2) : 215-222
21.Dantas GF et al. EEG in epilepsy: Sensibility and Specificity. J Epilepsy Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 20 (2): 116-118
22.Gaenslen A et al. The specificity and sensitivity of transcranial ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: a prospective blinded study. Lancet Volume 7, No. 5, p417–424, May 2008
23.Bouwmans AE et al. Specificity and sensitivity of transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: prospective cohort study in 196 patients. BMJ Open. 2013 Apr 2;3(4)
24.Li DH et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transcranial Sonography of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson’s disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Scientific Reports volume 6, Article number: 20863 (2016)
25.Tysnes OB et al. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Aug;124(8):901-905
26.Pringsheim T et al. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Mov Disord. 2014; 29: 1583–1590
27.Sedlic M et al. Epidemiology of Primary Headaches Among 1,876 Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Pain Medicine 2016; 17: 353–359
28.Kim BK et al. Prevalence and Impact of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in Korea. J Clin Neurol. 2012 Sep; 8(3): 204–211
29.Stovner LJ et al. Prevalence of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project. J Headache Pain (2010) 11:289–299
30.Robles P et al. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of primary brain tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Jun; 17(6): 776–783