Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data


Beware of the limitations of this tool

Heart and Vascular Disorders

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Sources used:

1.Rudi Bruyninckx et al. Signs and symptoms in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract 2008; 58 (547): e1-e8.
2.Goodacre S et al. Meta-analysis: the value of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:129-39
3.Khan NA et al. Does the clinical examination predict lower extremity peripheral arterial disease? JAMA 2006 February 1, 295 (5): 536-46
4.Iversen K et al. Effect of teaching and type of stethoscope on cardiac auscultatory performance. Am Heart J 2006;152:85.e1285.e7
5.Parras J et al. Diagnostic ability of Physical Examination in aortic Valve stenosis. Rev Argent Cardiol 2015;83:204-209
6.Choudhry NK et al. Does This Patient Have Aortic Regurgitation? JAMA. 1999;281:2231-2238
7.Wang CS et al. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 2005 Oct 19;294(15):1944-56
8.Lederle FA et al. The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have abdominal aortic aneurysm? JAMA. 1999 Jan 6;281(1):77-82
9.Morgan S et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of left ventricular dysfunction among elderly patients in general practice setting: cross sectional survey. BMJ. 1999 Feb 6; 318(7180): 368–372
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11.Mant J et al. Systematic review and modelling of the investigation of acute and chronic chest pain presenting in primary care. Health Technology Assessment Volume: 8, Issue: 2, Published in February 2004
12.Shamsham S et al. Essentials of the Diagnosis of Heart Failure. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Mar 1;61(5):1319-1328
13.Hobbs FD et al. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening) versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in people aged 65 and over. The SAFE study Health Technol. Assess., 9 (iii-iv, ix-x) (2005), pp. 1-74
14.Zimmerman J et al. Diagnostic marker cooperative study for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1999 Apr 6;99(13):1671-7
15.Fanaroff AC et al. Does This Patient With Chest Pain Have Acute Coronary Syndrome?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. JAMA. 2015 Nov 10;314(18):1955-65
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17.Li XM et al. The diagnostic value of 64-multislice CT in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases: comparison with digital subtraction angiography. J Interv Radiol. 2007;16(6):371-374
18.Maisel AS et al. Rapid Measurement of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Emergency Diagnosis of Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:161-167
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21.J. Mant, D.A. Fitzmaurice, F.D. Hobbs, S. Jowett, E.T. Murray, R. Holder, et al. Accuracy of diagnosing atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram by primary care practitioners and interpretative diagnostic software: analysis of data from screening for atrial fibrillation in the elderly (SAFE) trial BMJ, 335 (2007), p. 380
22.Wells PS et al. Value of assessment of pretest probability of deep-vein thrombosis in clinical management. Lancet 1997 Dec 20-27 350(9094):1795-8
23.Kalbaugh CA et al. Peripheral Artery Disease Prevalence and Incidence Estimated From Both Outpatient and Inpatient Settings Among Medicare Fee‐for‐Service Beneficiaries in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e003796
24.Cervellin G et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute abdominal pain in a large urban Emergency Department: retrospective analysis of 5,340 cases. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Oct; 4(19): 362
25.Faggiano P et al. Epidemiology and cardiovascular risk factors of aortic stenosis. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2006; 4: 27
26.Seldon WA et al. The incidence of atrial septal defect in adults. Br Heart J. 1962 Sep; 24(5): 557–560
27.Delling FN et al. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Mitral Valve Prolapse: New Insights into Disease Progression, Genetics, and Molecular Basis. Circulation. 2014 May 27; 129(21): 2158–2170
28.Maurer G. Aortic regurgitation. Heart. 2006 Jul; 92(7): 994–1000
29.Danielsen R et al. Prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and future projections: the AGES-Reykjavík study. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2017 Aug;51(4):183-189
30.Go AS et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA. 2001 May 9;285(18):2370-5
31.Murphy NF et al. A national survey of the prevalence, incidence, primary care burden and treatment of atrial fibrillation in Scotland. Heart. 2007 May;93(5):606-12. Epub 2007 Feb 3