Signs and Evidence

Making clinical sense of scientific data


Beware of the limitations of this tool


Choose the relevant clinical signs you want to include in the calculation of posttest probabilities. The strongest signs are listed the highest.

1Posterior drawer test
2Pivot shift
3Anterior drawer test
4Lachman test
5McMurray's test
6Apley's test
7Pain valgus stress 30°
8Joint line tenderness

To further investigations

Select the conditions you want to compare

Pretest probabilities will be calculated based on averages from relevant studies.

 Select or deselect all boxes

All ages, knee injury
All ages, knee injury
All ages, knee injury
All ages, knee injury
All ages, knee injury

Sources used:

1.Rinonapoli G et al. The clinical diagnosis of meniscal tear is not easy. Reliability of two clinical meniscal tests and magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011 Jan-Mar;24(1 Suppl 2):39-44
2.Corea JR et al. McMurray's test tested. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1994;2(2):70-2
3.Evans PJ et al. Prospective evaluation of the McMurray test. Am J Sports Med. 1993 Jul-Aug;21(4):604-8
4.Fowler PJ et al. The predictive value of five clinical signs in the evaluation of meniscal pathology. Arthroscopy 1989;5:184-6
5.Kurosaka M et al. Efficacy of the axially loaded pivot shift test for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear. Int Orthop 1999;23:271-4
6.Rubinstein RA et al. The accuracy of the clinical examination in the setting of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med 1994; 22:550-7
7.Katz JW et al. The diagnostic accuracy of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament comparing the Lachman test, the ante- rior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test in acute and chronic knee injuries. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:88-91
8.Benjaminse A et al. Clinical Diagnosis of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Volume 36 Number 5 May 2006, 267-288
9.Kastelein M et al. Assessing Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Lesions in General Practice. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol 121, No 11, November 2008
10.Shelbourne KD et al. Correlation of joint line tenderness and meniscal lesions in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. Am J Sports Med 1995; 23: 166–9
11.Oei EH et al. Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee Differs According to Lesion. Radiology. 2003 Mar 226:837-48
12.Peat G et al. Population-wide incidence estimates for soft tissue knee injuries presenting to healthcare in southern Sweden: data from the Skåne Healthcare Register. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(4): R162
13.Majewsk M et al. Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: A 10-year study. The Knee Volume 13, Issue 3, June 2006, Pages 184-188
14.Gianotti S et al. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury and other knee ligament injuries: A national population-based study. JSAMS November 2009 Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 622–627